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This post continues a series on Exploring Causes of the Civil War. Other posts can be read by clicking on any of the following links: Part I: Introduction, Part II: Antebellum America, Part III: The Antebellum South, Part IV: The Antebellum North, Part V: The Rise of Sectional Disputes, Part VI: The Contribution of Constitutional Ambiguity, and Part VII: Political Discord, Slavery, and the Fight for Political Control.
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Gabor BorittCivil War scholar Gabor Boritt posits a fascinating theory that the impact of an individual can, in fact, be more influential in the determination of history’s direction than the long confluence of time.[i] “…It may be declared with confidence that a giant in the earth, or a crucial moment, weighs more in the scales of history than dreary ages.”[ii] The giant of which he spoke was Abraham Lincoln. His view makes Lincoln a central figure of both American mythology and history. Lincoln’s role in the coming of the Civil War he “divides into four increasingly important stages.”[iii]

  • First, in the 1850s as tensions grew, Lincoln was one of many political leaders, Lincolnfamiliar mostly in and around Illinois, though as the decade progressed so did his reputation in the North.
  • Second, in 1860 he won the presidential nomination of the Republican [P]arty and became a nationally known figure.
  • Third, from his election in early November to his inauguration on March 4, 1861, he was the president-elect.
  • Fourth, in the White House he presided over events that led to Sumter.

As one stage followed another, Lincoln’s stand changed only gradually, but his voice grew ever more weighty until the end when, together with the voice of President Jefferson Davis, it proved to be decisive.[iv]

I would suggest that there were others whose individual influence – while perhaps not equal to that of Lincoln’s – none the less, impacted the direction of the nation. Key to the South was the “triumvirate of secession” – extremists Robert Rhett, William Yancey, and Edmun Ruffin (pictured below). Each, according to his gifts, kept the pressure for secession constant, the evils of the North apparent. In the period after Lincoln’s election, they leveraged the fear, uncertainty and doubt created by Northern and Southern newspapers to move the populous from defeat to secession as the only alternative left.[v] [See more about Rhett, Yancey and Ruffin in my post "The Revolutionaries of the American Civil War" here.]

They fought delay. Many of the leaders had long believed the Union a curse to the South and they feared that if they moved too deliberately the North might offer favorable terms. Others urged quick action lest the people cool off and accept less than justice. They must strike while the iron was hot. Delay was their worst enemy.

By December 17, 1860, Rhett and his followers had secured a convention in South Carolina, composed of those who were ready to stand alone, if necessary, in defense of Southern rights. The next day an ordinance of secession was adopted. Within six weeks, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas had followed South Caroline’s example. The Cotton Kingdom was ready to form itself into the Confederate States of America.[vi]

Is it a wonder that Edmun Ruffin was among the first to fire a cannon on Fort Sumter?

RuffinAt a nearby battery, another fire-eater was ready. Edmund Ruffin, with his long flowing white hair, another momentary exile from a still reluctant Virginia, sixty seven-year-old honorary Palmetto Guard, was ready. Staring into the dark, knowing where the enemy was, he sent the first shot from a columbaid into the fort flying the unseen flag of the United States.[vii]

Key individuals in the North included those who catapulted the Abolitionist message into the public consciousness. For this reason, John Brown must be included. The men surrounding Lincoln – Seward, Chase, Bates, Douglas and Buchanan – also deserve a chair.

And So What the Cause?

The Civil War can be attributed to no single cause. Slavery was undeniably an influencing factor – a common thread – inexorably tied to the sectional crises that evolved as the country expanded. Profound sectional differences – social, cultural, spiritual, economic, political – provided sufficient tender to ignite into violent conflict – given the spark. The “fanatical edge” and our politicians created the sparks that erupted in violence and pushed the nation over the precipice and into war. Several key individuals tipped the balance. Chief among these were: the Southern fire-eaters Rhett, Yancey and Ruffin, abolitionists who turned up the heat of anti-slavery sentiments in the North, and – pointedly – Abraham Lincoln himself.

For more reading, I highly recommend Gabor S. Boritt’s Why the Civil War Came. His essay titled “Abraham Lincoln and the Question of Individual Responsibility” is excellent. Avery Craven’s The Coming of the Civil War. 2nd Ed. provides very interesting commentary on Rhett, Yancey, and Ruffin (and more about their individual strengths) and a wealth of information on Antebellum America and its march toward war.

In the next post, I’ll tackle the second question of the series: The Debate Over the War’s Inevitability.

© 2007 L. Rene TyreeWhy the Civil War Came
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[i] “Abraham Lincoln and the Question of Individual Responsibility,” in Why the Civil War Came., ed. Gabor S. Boritt (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), 7., [ii] Ibid., [iii] Ibid., [iv] Ibid.

[v] Avery Craven. The Coming of the Civil War. 2nd Ed. (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 19The Coming of the Civil War (Phoenix Books)57), 433., [vi] Ibid.

[vii] Boritt, “Abraham Lincoln and the Question of Individual Responsibility,” in Why the Civil War Came., ed. Gabor S. Boritt (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), 5.

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3 Responses to Exploring Causes of the Civil War – Part VIII: The Influence of the Individual

  1. Annabelle Nicol says:

    Hi Rene,
    I’m a grade 12 student in Australia doing a huge history project. I have chosen to investigate “Why do historians have differing perspectives regarding the causes of the American Civil War?” I have to look into the backgrounds and contexts of 3 different historians who have specialised in this area and how it has inmpacted on their writings.

    I have specifically chosen
    Avery Craven “The Coming of the Civil War”
    Eric Foner- “The American Civil War: Politics and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War and
    Ken Burns-documentary series “The Civil War”

    I have to write a report that is no more than 2500 words.

    Is this topic too broad for the reason that there are several causes of the war? and would this mean i’d be exceeding my word limit?
    am i better off investigating something simpler like “How has the impact of the individual had on the civil war?”

    your investigation is very interesting, thanks
    Annabelle

  2. Rene Tyree says:

    Hi Bobby,
    Thanks for your note. I am VERY interested in Jefferson Davis as well. I have on my list of posts to write several about him. Last semester, I purchased the book, “Jefferson Davis, American” by William J. Cooper and am really looking forward to reading it. Here is the link…

    http://astore.amazon.com/wig-wags-20/detail/0375725423/002-2764115-1303240

    One of the most interesting things I read last term about Davis was in the book “The Cause Lost: Myth and Realities of the Confederacy” by William C. Davis. The firs 50 pages of the book is a section called “Jefferson Davis and His Generals” and it is fascinating. It’s not sugar-coated. He tells it pretty straight but it really gives some interesting insights into the man and how he interacted with his key leaders. Here is a link to that one on my virtual bookstore. You can probably find it in your library too.

    http://astore.amazon.com/wig-wags-20/detail/0700612548/002-2764115-1303240

    Actually, come to think of it, I was SO impressed with the book above that I did write up a post about it including some words on Davis. You can find it at the link below. It’s titled, “Straight Talk on Soldiers and Presidents.”

    http://wigwags.wordpress.com/2007/11/04/a-bookcase-for-my-acw-books/

    Hope that helps Bobby. I promise to post more on Davis soon.

    Rene

  3. bobby says:

    Why don’t you say anthing BIG about Jefferson Davis?! No one else has any info…Y dont u ?

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